Wai Hon's Blog

Emacs Config

This is my personal Emacs configuration.



;; Increase the garbage collection threshold to 100MB to reduced startup time.
;; See https://www.reddit.com/r/emacs/comments/3kqt6e
(setq gc-cons-threshold (* 1024 1024 100))

;; Turn off mouse interface early in startup to avoid momentary display
(menu-bar-mode -1)
(tooltip-mode -1)

;; On Emacs without X, tool-bar-mode and scroll-bar-mode are not defined.
(when (fboundp 'tool-bar-mode)
  (tool-bar-mode -1))
(when (fboundp 'scroll-bar-mode)
  (scroll-bar-mode -1))

;; Show column number in the mode line.

(setq initial-scratch-message ";; scratch buffer\n\n")
(setq inhibit-startup-screen t)

;; Use shorter "y" or "n" to confirm killing emacs.
(setq confirm-kill-emacs 'y-or-n-p)

Package Management

;; MELPA package
(require 'package)
(add-to-list 'package-archives '("melpa" . "https://melpa.org/packages/") t)

;; Install 'use-package if not installed.
(unless (package-installed-p 'use-package)
  (package-install 'use-package))

;; For use-package keywords:
;; https://jwiegley.github.io/use-package/keywords/
(eval-when-compile (require 'use-package))

;; Ensure for all packages
(require 'use-package-ensure)
(setq use-package-always-ensure t)

Note: see this official doc for the use-package’s keywords.


Make sure Hydra is ready before the defhydra below.

Also see https://github.com/abo-abo/hydra/wiki/Hydras-by-Topic.

(use-package hydra :commands defhydra)


A popular recommendation is to bind <escape> with keyboard-escape-quit. However, it closes all the other windows at the same time and it is annoying to me. Instead, I map <escape> to keyboard-quit.

;; Don't forget to handle minibuffer with "minibuffer-keyboard-quit".
(global-set-key (kbd "<escape>") 'keyboard-quit)

;; Avoid entering the ~repeat-complex-cammand~ when quiting everything with ~C-x~.
(global-unset-key (kbd "C-x <escape> <escape>")) ; repeat-complex-command

An even better way is to build muscle memory to use the standard C-g to “quit” and C-] to “abort”.


I don’t use backup files often as I use git to manage most of my org files. However, I still feel safer when having a backup. I follow the backup configuration from Sacha Chua to enable Emacs’s backups aggressively.

;; Save backup files to a dedicated directory.
(setq backup-directory-alist '(("." . "~/.emacs.d/backups")))
(setq delete-old-versions -1)

;; Make numeric backup versions unconditionally.
(setq version-control t)
(setq vc-make-backup-files t)
(setq auto-save-file-name-transforms '((".*" "~/.emacs.d/auto-save-list/" t)))

;; Do not create lock files.
(setq create-lockfiles nil)


;; Use year/month/day
(setq calendar-date-style 'iso)

(xterm-mouse-mode +1)

;; Remember and restore the last cursor location of opened files
(save-place-mode 1)

;; Don't pop up UI dialogs when prompting
(setq use-dialog-box nil)

;; Disable the alarm bell (https://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/AlarmBell).
(setq ring-bell-function 'ignore)


Remove Key Bindings

I disable most Emacs’s default keybinding because I am not able to get my muscle memory to work with it. Even if I do, that muscle memory probably will cause trouble when editing in other applications, like web apps.

;; Disabe some Emacs's default keybindings.
(global-unset-key (kbd "C-v"))  ; scroll-up-command
(global-unset-key (kbd "M-v"))  ; scroll-down-command
(global-unset-key (kbd "C-n"))  ; next line
(global-unset-key (kbd "C-p"))  ; previous line
(global-unset-key (kbd "C-b"))  ; previous char
(global-unset-key (kbd "C-f"))  ; next char
(global-unset-key (kbd "C-t"))  ; switch char
(global-unset-key (kbd "C-l"))  ; recenter
(global-unset-key (kbd "C-j"))  ; (electric-newline-and-maybe-indent)
(global-unset-key (kbd "M-l"))  ; downcase-word
(global-unset-key (kbd "M-u"))  ; upcase-wrod

Text Mode and Prog Mode

I defined my own my/text-mode and my/prog-mode which enable several minor modes and key bindings.

I avoid global settings like global-display-line-numbers-mode and only enable stuff when I need to, like display-line-numbers-mode. I use global settings only if that is globally applicable everywhere.

(defun my/edit-mode ()
  (display-line-numbers-mode +1)
  (visual-line-mode +1)               ; enable "word-wrap"
  (toggle-truncate-lines -1)
  (hl-line-mode +1)
  (local-set-key (kbd "C-S-s") 'write-file)
  (setq cursor-type 'bar)
  (setq show-trailing-whitespace t))

(defun my/text-mode ()
  (goto-address-mode +1)

(defun my/prog-mode ()
  (show-paren-mode +1)
  (goto-address-prog-mode +1)

(add-hook 'text-mode-hook 'my/text-mode)
(add-hook 'prog-mode-hook 'my/prog-mode)
(add-hook 'conf-mode-hook 'my/prog-mode)

;; Removes the overlay properties which flyspell uses on incorrect words for mouse operations.
;; https://emacs.stackexchange.com/a/55708
(defun make-flyspell-overlay-return-mouse-stuff (overlay)
  (overlay-put overlay 'help-echo nil)
  (overlay-put overlay 'keymap nil)
  (overlay-put overlay 'mouse-face nil))
(advice-add 'make-flyspell-overlay :filter-return #'make-flyspell-overlay-return-mouse-stuff)

Delete Trailing Whitespaces Except Current Line

I hook this function with my/save-buffer.

;; Remove trailing whitespace except current line.
;; https://stackoverflow.com/a/35781486/1747877
(defun my/delete-trailing-whitespace-except-current-line ()
  "Delete trailing whitespace in the whole buffer, except on the current line.
  The current line exception is because we do want to remove any whitespace
  on the current line on saving the file (`before-save-hook') while we are
  in-between typing something.

  Do not do anything if `do-not-delete-trailing-whitespace' is non-nil."
  (when (not (bound-and-true-p do-not-delete-trailing-whitespace))
    (delete-trailing-whitespace (point-min) (line-beginning-position))
    (delete-trailing-whitespace (line-end-position) (point-max))))

(add-hook 'before-save-hook #'my/delete-trailing-whitespace-except-current-line)

Ignore save-buffer unless visiting a file

See my blog post.

(defun my/save-buffer (&optional arg)
  "Like `save-buffer', but does nothing if buffer is not visiting a file."
  (interactive "p")
  (unless (or (buffer-file-name)                       ; regular buffer
              (buffer-file-name (buffer-base-buffer))) ; indirect buffer
    (user-error "Use 'M-x save-buffer' to save this buffer."))
    (save-buffer arg)))

(global-set-key [remap save-buffer] #'my/save-buffer)

Auto Save and Auto Revert

Auto-save and auto-revert makes Emacs more modern. They are especially useful when editing files that is synchronized with other computers. For example, it causes less conflict when editing the same Dropbox file on multiple places.

;; Auto save buffer if idled for 2 seconds.
(setq auto-save-timeout 2)
(auto-save-visited-mode +1)

;; Watch and reload the file changed on the disk.
(global-auto-revert-mode +1)
(setq auto-revert-remote-files t)

Modern Editor Behavior

These configurations modernize Emacs.

;; Delete the selected text first before editing.
(delete-selection-mode +1)

;; Mouse middle-click yanks where the point is, not where the mouse is.
(setq mouse-yank-at-point t)

Smooth Scrolling

The default Emacs scrolling behavior is really weird and different from other modern editors.

However, this is still not ideal.

;; Smooth Scrolling: https://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/SmoothScrolling
(setq scroll-conservatively 10000
      scroll-step 1)

Moving Lines

Moving lines up and down are very common editing operations to me. This stackoverflow entry has more fancy answers but these two are exactly what I need.

;; move line up
(defun my/move-line-up ()
  (transpose-lines 1)
  (previous-line 2))
(global-set-key [(meta shift up)] 'my/move-line-up)

;; move line down
(defun my/move-line-down ()
  (next-line 1)
  (transpose-lines 1)
  (previous-line 1))

(global-set-key [(meta shift down)] 'my/move-line-down)

Sentence End with Single Space

By default, Emacs treat a period followed by double spaces as the end of sentence. This is old-fashioned and uncommon now.

(setq sentence-end-double-space nil)

Indent with Space

(setq-default indent-tabs-mode nil)

Rename File and Buffer Together

See https://emacs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/file_management.html.

(defun my/rename-file-and-buffer ()
  "Renames the current buffer and the file it is visiting."
  (let ((name (buffer-name))
    (filename (buffer-file-name)))
    (if (not (and filename (file-exists-p filename)))
    (error "Buffer '%s' is not visiting a file!" name)
      (let ((new-name (read-file-name "New name: " filename)))
    (if (get-buffer new-name)
        (error "A buffer named '%s' already exists!" new-name)
      (rename-file filename new-name 1)
      (rename-buffer new-name)
      (set-visited-file-name new-name)
      (set-buffer-modified-p nil)
      (message "File '%s' successfully renamed to '%s'"
               name (file-name-nondirectory new-name)))))))

(global-set-key (kbd "C-x R") 'my/rename-file-and-buffer)

Delete File and Buffer Together

See http://emacsredux.com/blog/2013/04/03/delete-file-and-buffer/. If you like this command, it worth taking a look at crux package as well for similar useful collection.

(defun my/delete-file-and-buffer ()
  "Kills the current buffer and deletes the file it is visiting."
  (let ((filename (buffer-file-name)))
    (if filename
        (if (y-or-n-p (concat "Do you really want to delete file " filename " ?"))
              (delete-file filename)
              (message "Deleted file %s." filename)
      (message "Not a file visiting buffer!"))))

(global-set-key (kbd "C-x K") 'my/delete-file-and-buffer)

Edit File as Root

(defun my/sudo-find-file (file-name)
  "Like find file, but opens the file as root."
  (interactive "FSudo Find File: ")
  (let ((tramp-file-name (concat "/sudo::" (expand-file-name file-name))))
    (find-file tramp-file-name)))

Insert Snippets

Very often, I want to insert today’s date. There are many ways of doing this.

(defun my/insert-current-date () (interactive)
       (insert (shell-command-to-string "echo -n $(date +%Y-%m-%d)")))

(defhydra my/hydra-snippets (:hint nil
                             :foreign-keys warn
                             :exit t)
  ("d" (my/insert-current-date) "Current Date (yyyy-mm-dd)")
  ("q" nil "Quit Menu"))

(global-set-key (kbd "C-c s") 'my/hydra-snippets/body)


I found Tramp could be spammy to the minibuffer when saving file.

For example, these logs are printed to the minibuffer when saving a file.

Tramp: Encoding local file ‘/tmp/tramp.JniPQo.org’ using ‘base64-encode-region’…done Tramp: Decoding remote file ‘/ssh:<user>@<host>:/path/to/test.org’ using ‘base64 -d -

Set tramp-verbose to 2 or lower to avoid showing the “connection to remote hosts” level message in minibuffer.

;; for Emacs 28 or above
(setq tramp-verbose 2)
;; for Emacs 27 or below
(setq tramp-message-show-message nil)


I don’t use Doom Emacs but I do use its theme and modeline.

Modus Theme

With Emacs 28, I am giving the built-in Modus themes and disabling doom-themes. Note that there is a command M-x modus-themes-toggle to toggle the dark and light modus theme. Thanks to this video.

I found the Modus themes is less buggy with the which-key package.

(use-package emacs
  (setq modus-themes-org-blocks 'gray-background)
  (setq modus-themes-headings
        '((1 . (rainbow overline background 1.0))
          (2 . (rainbow overline background 1.0))
          (3 . (rainbow overline background 1.0))
          (t . (semilight 1.0))))
  (setq modus-themes-scale-headings nil)
  (load-theme 'modus-vivendi)
  :bind ("<f5>" . modus-themes-toggle))

Doom Modeline

;; https://github.com/seagle0128/doom-modeline
(use-package doom-modeline
  (doom-modeline-mode +1))

Window Management

Winner Mode

Winner Mode is a global minor mode. When activated, it allows you to “undo” (and “redo”) changes in the window configuration with the key commands C-c left and C-c right.

(use-package winner
  (winner-mode +1))

Window Navigation

;; Navigate between window.
(use-package windmove
  ("M-s-<up>" . 'windmove-up)
  ("M-s-<down>" . 'windmove-down)
  ("M-s-<left>" . 'windmove-left)
  ("M-s-<right>" . 'windmove-right))

(use-package ace-window
  ("M-o" . 'ace-window)
  (aw-keys '(?a ?s ?d ?f ?g ?h ?j ?k ?l))
  (aw-scope 'frame))

Window Dedication

(defun my/toggle-current-window-dedication ()
  (let* ((window (selected-window))
         (dedicated (window-dedicated-p window)))
    (set-window-dedicated-p window (not dedicated))
    (message "Window %sdedicated to %s"
             (if dedicated "no longer " "")
(global-set-key (kbd "<f12>") 'my/toggle-current-window-dedication)

Focus to new Window after Split

;; https://stackoverflow.com/a/6465415
(global-set-key "\C-x2" (lambda () (interactive)(split-window-vertically) (other-window 1)))
(global-set-key "\C-x3" (lambda () (interactive)(split-window-horizontally) (other-window 1)))


Completion with vertico

(use-package vertico
  (setq vertico-count 25)
  (:map vertico-map
        ([escape] . minibuffer-keyboard-quit)
        ("<prior>" . vertico-scroll-down)
        ("<next>" . vertico-scroll-up)))

;; Persist history over Emacs restarts. Vertico sorts by history position.
(use-package savehist

;; A few more useful configurations...
(use-package emacs
  ;; Add prompt indicator to `completing-read-multiple'.
  ;; We display [CRM<separator>], e.g., [CRM,] if the separator is a comma.
  (defun crm-indicator (args)
    (cons (format "[CRM%s] %s"
                   "\\`\\[.*?]\\*\\|\\[.*?]\\*\\'" ""
                  (car args))
          (cdr args)))
  (advice-add #'completing-read-multiple :filter-args #'crm-indicator)

  ;; Do not allow the cursor in the minibuffer prompt
  (setq minibuffer-prompt-properties
        '(read-only t cursor-intangible t face minibuffer-prompt))
  (add-hook 'minibuffer-setup-hook #'cursor-intangible-mode)

  ;; Emacs 28: Hide commands in M-x which do not work in the current mode.
  ;; Vertico commands are hidden in normal buffers.
  (setq read-extended-command-predicate

  ;; Enable recursive minibuffers
  (setq enable-recursive-minibuffers t))

;; Optionally use the `orderless' completion style.
(use-package orderless
  ;; Configure a custom style dispatcher (see the Consult wiki)
  ;; (setq orderless-style-dispatchers '(+orderless-dispatch)
  ;;       orderless-component-separator #'orderless-escapable-split-on-space)
  (setq completion-styles '(orderless basic)
        completion-category-defaults nil
        completion-category-overrides '((file (styles partial-completion)))))


(use-package consult
  ("C-f" . consult-line)
  ("C-s" . consult-line))

Embark & Marginalia

(use-package marginalia

(use-package embark
  (("C-." . embark-act)         ;; pick some comfortable binding
   ("C-;" . embark-dwim)        ;; good alternative: M-.
   ("C-h B" . embark-bindings)) ;; alternative for "describe-bindings"

  ;; Optionally replace the key help with a completing-read interface
  (setq prefix-help-command #'embark-prefix-help-command)

  ;; Hide the mode line of the Embark live/completions buffers
  (add-to-list 'display-buffer-alist
               '("\\`\\*Embark Collect \\(Live\\|Completions\\)\\*"
                 (window-parameters (mode-line-format . none)))))

;; Consult users will also want the embark-consult package.
(use-package embark-consult
  (embark-collect-mode . consult-preview-at-point-mode))

Hydra Consult Menu

Create a hydra menu for the consult commands I use frequently.

;; Hydra menu to for consult.
(defhydra hydra-consult-menu (:hint nil
                              :foreign-keys warn
                              :exit t
                              :pre (setq which-key-inhibit t)
                              :post (setq which-key-inhibit nil))
  "===== Consult Menu (F12) =====\n"
  ("f" (my/consult-org-agenda) "Agenda")
  ("n" (org-roam-node-find) "Roam")
  ("r" (consult-recent-file) "Recentf")
  ("q" nil "quit menu" :color blue))
(global-set-key (kbd "<f8>") 'hydra-consult-menu/body)


which-key displays the key bindings following your currently entered incomplete command (a prefix).

(use-package which-key
  ; (which-key-idle-delay 10000 "Set idle delay to infinite so it never trigger automatically")
  ; (which-key-show-early-on-C-h t "Allow C-h to trigger which-key before it is done automatically.")
  ; (which-key-idle-secondary-delay 0.05)
  (which-key-mode +1 "Non-nil if which-Key mode is enabled"))



;; https://github.com/xuchunyang/youdao-dictionary.el
(use-package youdao-dictionary
  (setq url-automatic-caching t) ; enable cache
  ("C-c v" . youdao-dictionary-search-at-point+)
  ("C-c V" . youdao-dictionary-play-voice-at-point))

(defun my/browse-dictionary-at-point ()
  (browse-url (concat "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/zht/詞典/英語-漢語-繁體/" (thing-at-point 'word))))
(global-set-key (kbd "M-q") 'browse-dictionary-at-point)


Spell Checking

(use-package flyspell-correct
  :after flyspell
  :bind (:map flyspell-mode-map ("C-<tab>" . flyspell-correct-wrapper)))


;; https://www.powerthesaurus.org/
(use-package powerthesaurus
  ("M-`" . powerthesaurus-lookup-word-dwim))


Org Basic

(use-package emacs
  ("C-c a" . 'org-agenda)
  ("C-c c" . 'org-capture)
  (:map org-mode-map ("C-c n n" . org-id-get-create))
  (:map org-mode-map ("C-x n n" . org-toggle-narrow-to-subtree))
  (org-directory "~/sync/org")
  (org-indirect-buffer-display 'current-window)
  (org-refile-use-outline-path 'file)
  (org-startup-with-inline-images t)
  (org-startup-indented t)
  (org-startup-with-inline-images t)
  (org-outline-path-complete-in-steps nil)
  ;; Reserve "C-c <arrow>" for windmove
  (org-mode . (lambda ()
                (local-unset-key (kbd "C-c <left>"))
                (local-unset-key (kbd "C-c <right>"))
                (local-unset-key (kbd "C-c <up>"))
                (local-unset-key (kbd "C-c <down>")))))


I was using org-download but switched to the built-in org-attach in 2022. I use .dir-locals.el to customize org-attach-id-dir if necessary.

(require 'org-attach)
(setq org-attach-id-dir "~/sync/org/attachments")
(setq org-attach-use-inheritance t)

;; Use timestamp as ID and attachment folder. See https://helpdeskheadesk.net/2022-03-13/
(setq org-id-method 'ts)
(setq org-attach-id-to-path-function-list

;; Shorten the Org timestamp ID
(setq org-id-ts-format "%Y%m%dT%H%M%S")

Task Management

See this blog post for my Org-Mode workflow for task management.

(setq org-enforce-todo-dependencies t)
(setq org-log-into-drawer t)

;; Trying to use the current window as agenda frame.
(setq org-agenda-window-setup 'current-window)

;; Use sticky agenda since I need different agenda views (personal and work) at the same time.
(setq org-agenda-sticky t)

;; Use an indirect buffer after <Tab> (org-agenda-goto) or <Enter> (org-agenda-switch-to).
;; Also see https://emacs.stackexchange.com/a/17822
;; (advice-add 'org-agenda-goto :after
;;             (lambda (&rest args)
;;               (org-tree-to-indirect-buffer)))
;; (advice-add 'org-agenda-switch-to :after
;;             (lambda (&rest args)
;;               (org-tree-to-indirect-buffer)))

;; Narrow to subtree after <Tab> (org-agenda-goto) or <Enter> (org-agenda-switch-to).
;; (advice-add 'org-agenda-goto :after
;;             (lambda (&rest args)
;;               (org-narrow-to-subtree)))
;; (advice-add 'org-agenda-switch-to :after
;;             (lambda (&rest args)
;;               (org-narrow-to-subtree)))

(defun my/consult-org-agenda ()
(global-set-key (kbd "<f1>") 'consult-org-agenda)

(defun my/consult-ripgrep-org-directory ()
  ;; Add "--no-ignore-vcs" to the rg command so todo.org could be searched.
  (let ((consult-ripgrep-args
         "rg --null --line-buffered --color=never --max-columns=1000 --path-separator /   --smart-case --no-heading --line-number --no-ignore-vcs ."))
    (consult-ripgrep "~/sync/org" "")))
(global-set-key (kbd "C-S-f") 'my/consult-ripgrep-org-directory)

Note Taking with denote (experimental)

(defun my/consult-ripgrep-denote-directory ()
  (consult-ripgrep denote-directory ""))

(use-package denote
  ("C-c m f" . 'denote-open-or-create)
  ("C-c m i" . 'denote-link-insert-link)
  ("C-c m F" . 'my/consult-ripgrep-denote-directory) ; full text search
  ("C-c m R" . 'denote-rename-file-using-front-matter)
  ;; ("C-c m R" . 'my/denote-random-note) ; TODO: implements it
  (setq denote-directory (expand-file-name "~/sync/org/personal"))

  ;; Remove the date and the identifier. They are duplicated with the file name.
  (setq denote-org-front-matter "#+title:      %1$s
#+filetags:   %3$s

  (add-hook 'dired-mode-hook #'denote-dired-mode))

Taking Note with Org Roam

See the official user manual and user contributed tricks.

(defun my/consult-ripgrep-org-roam-directory ()
  (consult-ripgrep org-roam-directory ""))

(defun my/org-roam-db-resync ()

(use-package org-roam
  (org-roam-directory (file-truename "~/sync/org/"))
  (org-roam-completion-everywhere t)
   (concat "${type:20} ${title:*} "
           (propertize "${tags:20}" 'face 'org-tag)))
  ("C-c n l" . org-roam-buffer-toggle)
  ("C-c n f" . org-roam-node-find)               ; search with: title, tags, notebook
  ("C-c n F" . my/consult-ripgrep-org-roam-directory) ; full text search
  ("C-c n g" . org-roam-graph)
  ("C-c n i" . org-roam-node-insert)
  ("C-c n c" . org-roam-capture)
  ("C-c n r" . org-roam-node-random)
  ("C-c n t" . org-roam-tag-add)
  ("C-c n e" . org-roam-ref-add)
  ("C-c n E" . org-roam-ref-find)
  (setq org-roam-v2-ack t)

  ;; Excludes all nodes
  ;; 1. under the .stversions directory, or
  ;; 2. with the "NO_ORG_ROAM" tag from the org-roam database.
  (setq org-roam-db-node-include-function
        (lambda ()
           (not (string-match-p (regexp-quote ".stversions") (buffer-file-name)))
           (not (member "NO_ORG_ROAM" (org-get-tags))))))
  (setq org-agenda-hide-tags-regexp "NO_ORG_ROAM")

  (cl-defmethod org-roam-node-type ((node org-roam-node))
    "Return the TYPE of NODE."
    (condition-case nil
          (file-relative-name (org-roam-node-file node) org-roam-directory)))
      (error "")))

  ;; Change file-name (slug) creation
  ;; Replace whitespace with dashes instead of underscores.
  ;; See
  ;; - https://github.com/org-roam/org-roam/wiki/User-contributed-Tricks#overriding-the-slug-function
  ;; - https://www.reddit.com/r/emacs/comments/veesun/orgroam_is_absolutely_fantastic/
  (cl-defmethod org-roam-node-slug ((node org-roam-node))
    "Return the slug of NODE."
    (let ((title (org-roam-node-title node))
          (slug-trim-chars '(;; Combining Diacritical Marks https://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0300.pdf
                             768 ; U+0300 COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT
                             769 ; U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT
                             770 ; U+0302 COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
                             771 ; U+0303 COMBINING TILDE
                             772 ; U+0304 COMBINING MACRON
                             774 ; U+0306 COMBINING BREVE
                             775 ; U+0307 COMBINING DOT ABOVE
                             776 ; U+0308 COMBINING DIAERESIS
                             777 ; U+0309 COMBINING HOOK ABOVE
                             778 ; U+030A COMBINING RING ABOVE
                             779 ; U+030B COMBINING DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT
                             780 ; U+030C COMBINING CARON
                             795 ; U+031B COMBINING HORN
                             803 ; U+0323 COMBINING DOT BELOW
                             804 ; U+0324 COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
                             805 ; U+0325 COMBINING RING BELOW
                             807 ; U+0327 COMBINING CEDILLA
                             813 ; U+032D COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT BELOW
                             814 ; U+032E COMBINING BREVE BELOW
                             816 ; U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW
                             817 ; U+0331 COMBINING MACRON BELOW
      (cl-flet* ((nonspacing-mark-p (char) (memq char slug-trim-chars))
                 (strip-nonspacing-marks (s) (string-glyph-compose
                                              (apply #'string
                                                     (seq-remove #'nonspacing-mark-p
                                                                 (string-glyph-decompose s)))))
                 (cl-replace (title pair) (replace-regexp-in-string (car pair) (cdr pair) title)))
        (let* ((pairs `(("[^[:alnum:][:digit:]]" . "-") ;; convert anything not alphanumeric to dashes
                        ("--*" . "-")                   ;; remove sequential dashes
                        ("^-" . "")                     ;; remove starting dashes
                        ("-$" . "")))                   ;; remove ending dashes
               (slug (-reduce-from #'cl-replace (strip-nonspacing-marks title) pairs)))
          (downcase slug)))))

  (add-to-list 'display-buffer-alist
                 (direction . right)
                 (window-width . 0.33)
                 (window-height . fit-window-to-buffer))))

(use-package org-roam
  :disabled  ; disable until my workflow need this.
  ("C-c n d" . org-roam-dailies-map)
  (require 'org-roam-dailies))

(use-package org-roam-ui
  :after org-roam
  :hook (after-init . org-roam-ui-mode)
  (setq org-roam-ui-sync-theme t
        org-roam-ui-follow t
        org-roam-ui-update-on-save t
        org-roam-ui-open-on-start t))

Blogging with ox-hugo

My blog is generated by Hugo and ox-hugo.

(use-package ox-hugo
  :after ox)

Spaced Repetition with org-drill

I use org-drill to enhance my learning, like vocabulary, reading notes, concepts, etc.

;; https://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/org-drill.html
(use-package org-drill
  (org-drill-save-buffers-after-drill-sessions-p nil "Save buffers after drill sessions without prompt.")
  ("C-c d" . org-drill))

I used Anki before embracing Emacs and Org Mode. Anki gave me access on mobile but I have to sync my data to its server. I migrated to org-drill for a more coherent Emacs workflow. To be fair, it gives me access over ssh :-p.

Literate Programming with Org-Babel


 '((emacs-lisp . t) (shell . t)))

Org Breadcrumb

(defun ndk/heading-title ()
  "Get the heading title."
    (if (not (org-at-heading-p))
        (org-previous-visible-heading 1))
    (org-element-property :title (org-element-at-point))))

(defun ndk/org-breadcrumbs ()
  "Get the chain of headings from the top level down
    to the current heading."
  (let ((breadcrumbs (org-format-outline-path
                      (1- (frame-width))
                      nil " > "))
        (title (ndk/heading-title)))
    (if (string-empty-p breadcrumbs)
      (format "%s" breadcrumbs))))

(defun ndk/set-header-line-format()
  (setq header-line-format '(:eval (ndk/org-breadcrumbs))))

(add-hook 'org-mode-hook #'ndk/set-header-line-format)



There are multiple key-binding to trigger magit-status:

C-x g
The default keybinding from magit.
C-x p m
The keybinding from project.el.
(use-package magit)

Diff Highlight

(use-package diff-hl
  (magit-pre-refresh . diff-hl-magit-pre-refresh)
  (magit-post-refresh . diff-hl-magit-post-refresh))


(use-package vterm
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f1>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f2>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f3>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f4>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f5>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f6>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f7>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f8>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f9>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f10>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f11>") nil)
  (define-key vterm-mode-map (kbd "<f12>") nil)
  (vterm-shell "bash" "Set to bash instead of the default $SHELL so that vterm from TRAMP uses bash.")
  (vterm-mode . goto-address-mode))

(use-package vterm-toggle
  ;; show vterm buffer in side window
  (add-to-list 'display-buffer-alist
                 (display-buffer-reuse-window display-buffer-in-side-window)
                 (side . bottom)
                 (dedicated . t)
                 ;; (reusable-frames . visible) ;; depends on how I use Emacs / Emacs Client
                 (window-height . 0.3)))
  ("<f10>" . vterm-toggle)
  ("C-`" . vterm-toggle))

Snippet Template with yasnippet

(use-package yasnippet
  ("C-c y i" . yas-insert-snippet)
  ("C-c y n" . yas-new-snippet))

(use-package yasnippet-snippets)

Make Script Files Executable Automatically

Make script files (with shebang like #!/bin/bash, #!/bin/sh) executable automatically. See this blog post from Emacs Redux.

(add-hook 'after-save-hook


(use-package yaml-mode)

Web Mode

https://web-mode.org/ is an autonomous major-mode for editing web templates.

(use-package web-mode)

Markdown Mode

(use-package markdown-mode)

LSP Mode

Documentation: https://emacs-lsp.github.io/lsp-mode/

(use-package lsp-mode
  (setq lsp-keymap-prefix "M-l")
  (lsp-mode . lsp-enable-which-key-integration)
  :commands lsp)

(use-package lsp-ui
  :commands lsp-ui-mode
  (:map lsp-ui-mode-map
        ([remap xref-find-references] . lsp-ui-peek-find-references)
        ([remap xref-find-definitions] . lsp-ui-peek-find-definitions)
        ("M-l i" . lsp-ui-imenu))
  (setq lsp-ui-peek-show-directory nil)

  (setq lsp-ui-doc-enable t)
  (setq lsp-ui-doc-header t)
  (setq lsp-ui-doc-include-signature t)
  (setq lsp-ui-doc-border (face-foreground 'default))

  (setq lsp-ui-sideline-enable t)
  (setq lsp-ui-sideline-show-code-actions t)
  (setq lsp-ui-sideline-show-diagnostics nil)
  (setq lsp-ui-sideline-show-hover nil)
  (setq lsp-ui-sideline-delay 0.1))

(use-package lsp-treemacs)

C++ Setup


(use-package lsp-mode
  :hook (c++-mode . lsp))

Project Management


I particularly love the handy projectile function projectile-find-file-in-known-project and adding that function to project.el below.

Note: Run project-forget-zombie-projects to remove deleted project directories.

project-prefix-map is bind to C-x p by default. (it seems no way to change it)

(use-package project

  (defun my/project-all-project-files ()
    "Get a list of all files in all known projects."
     (lambda (project)
       (when (file-exists-p project)
         (mapcar (lambda (file)
                   (expand-file-name file project))
                 (project-files (project-current nil project)))))

  (defun my/project-find-file-in-known-projects ()
    "Find a file from known projects."
    (let* ((completion-ignore-case read-file-name-completion-ignore-case)
           (file (funcall project-read-file-name-function
                          "Find file in known projects" (my/project-all-project-files) nil nil
                          (thing-at-point 'filename))))
      (if (string= file "")
          (user-error "You didn't specify the file")
        (find-file file))))

  (define-key project-prefix-map (kbd "F") #'my/project-find-file-in-known-projects))


First of all, press ? to summon the helpful hydra.

The treemacs-follow-mode is a little annoying to me. I turn it off and always use treemacs-find-file for focusing.

(defun my/treemacs-find-file ()

;; Optimize Treemacs for note-taking with Org-Roam.
(with-eval-after-load 'treemacs
  (defun my/trim-roam-prefix (name)
    (if (string-prefix-p "20" name)
        (substring name 9) name))

  (defun my/treemacs-file-name-transformer (name)
    (let ((trimmed (my/trim-roam-prefix name)))
      (if (string-suffix-p ".org" trimmed)
          (substring trimmed 0 -4) trimmed)))

  (setq treemacs-file-name-transformer #'my/treemacs-file-name-transformer)

  (defun treemacs-ignore-org-hidden-files (filename absolute-path)
    (and (string-match-p (regexp-quote "/sync/org") absolute-path)
         (string-prefix-p "." filename)))
  (add-to-list 'treemacs-ignored-file-predicates #'treemacs-ignore-org-hidden-files)

  (defun treemacs-ignore-org-archive (filename absolute-path)
    (and (string-match-p (regexp-quote "/sync/org") absolute-path)
         (string-suffix-p ".org_archive" filename)))
  (add-to-list 'treemacs-ignored-file-predicates #'treemacs-ignore-org-archive))

(use-package treemacs
  (treemacs-follow-mode -1)
  (treemacs-width 40)
  (treemacs-width-is-initially-locked nil)
  (treemacs-sorting 'mod-time-desc "Optimize for note taking with mod-time-desc.")
  ("<f9>"   . treemacs)
  ("C-<f9>" . my/treemacs-find-file)
  ("M-0" . treemacs-select-window))

(use-package treemacs-projectile
  :requires (treemacs projectile))

Chinese Support

Rime Input Method

See https://github.com/DogLooksGood/emacs-rime for the setup instruction.

Use C-\ (toggle-input-method) to toggle the input method. Run M-x rime-open-configuration to open the default.custom.yaml under rime-user-data-dir.

(use-package rime
  (setq default-input-method "rime")
  (rime-show-candidate 'posframe)
  (rime-posframe-style 'vertical))

CJK Word Wrap

Emacs 28 adds better word wrap / line break support for CJK. See Emacs 28 新特性介绍.

(setq word-wrap-by-category t)

Better CJK Font

cnfonts is a tool for configuring the fonts used in Emacs.

(use-package cnfonts
  (setq cnfonts-profiles '("hack" "ubuntu"))
  (cnfonts-mode 1))